Law Review International Journal of Law and Jurisprudence Open Source Online Publication Edited by the Union of Jurists of Romania and Universul Juridic Publishing House e-ISSN 2246-9435
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CONSIDERATIONS SUR LE STATUT DU PARQUET EN FRANCE. LA SUBORDINATION AU MINISTRE DE LA JUSTICE ET L’EQUITE DANS LE CONTEXTE INTERNATIONAL ET NATIONAL

Monica Marcela DINU BAKOŞ

 L’article porte sur la problématique du statut du Parquet en France et de la conformité

de l’article 5 de l’Ordonnance n° 58-1270 du 22 décembre 1958 portant loi organique
relative au statut de la magistrature qui prévoit que : « Les magistrats du parquet sont
placés sous la direction et le contrôle de leurs chefs hiérarchiques et sous l'autorité du
Garde des Sceaux, Ministre de la Justice (…) », au principe de la séparation des pouvoirs,
l’article 16 de la Déclaration des droits de l'homme et du citoyen de 1789, garantie de
l’indépendance de l’autorité judiciaire et à l’article 64 de la Constitution française de 1958.
Le Conseil Constitutionnel était saisi le 27 septembre 2017 pour se prononcer sur la
question prioritaire de constitutionnalité (QPC) soulevée en juin 2017 par L’Union
syndicale des magistrats en ce sens. Il était également souligné que ces dispositions
méconnaissent, toujours pour le même motif, le droit à un procès équitable et les droits de
la défense dans le procès pénal. La Cour Européenne des Droits de l’homme a remis en
cause le système pénal français et non pas dans une manière très favorable pour la France
en appréciant le statut du Parquet. Néanmoins, la France a choisi d’offrir une justification
légale a sa structure traditionnelle car celle-ci ne contrevient pas à la Constitution, ni au
principe de l’équité du procès pénal puisque, en effet, l’indépendance et la séparation des
pouvoirs existent et ont toujours existé dans le système pénal français.
Mots clés : statut du Parquet, indépendance de l’autorité judiciaire, séparation des
pouvoirs, équité, droit à un procès équitable
The article treats and analyses the statute of the Prosecutors in France and the
conformity of the 5th article of the Organique Law ruling the statute of magistrates which
reveals that : « The magistrates forming the Public Minister are placed under the control
and under the direction of their superior chiefs and under the authority of the French Minister of Justice (…) », with the rule of law principle, with the 16th article of the French
Declaration of human and citizens’ rights from 1789, guaranty of the independence of the
judicial authority and with the 64th article of the French Constitution from 1958. The French
Constitutional Council was seized on September 27th, 2017 to decide on the priority issue
of constitutionality (QPC) raised in June 2017 concerning this issue by the Union syndicale
des magistrats. It was also pointed out that these provisions disregard, for the same reason,
the right to a fair trial and the rights of the defense in the criminal trial. The European Court
of Human Rights has questioned the French penal system and not in a very favorable way
for France by appreciating upon the statute of the Public Prosecutor. Nevertheless, France
has chosen to justify its traditional structure regarding this matter of subordination
because, in fact, it does not contravene the Constitution or the principle of the fairness of
the criminal trial since, indeed, independence and the separation of powers (rule of law)
exist and have always existed in the French penal system.

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Volume VIII, Issue 2, July-December 2018, posted at 18th of December 2018

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Summary

Articles (Studies, discussions, comments)

FUNDAMENTALS OF PROJECT FINANCE APPLIED TO PRIVATE PUBLIC PARTNERSHIPS IN COLOMBIA1

Mónica Liliana Ibagón

ADMINISTRATIVE ENFORCEMENT PROCEEDINGS FROM THE COMPARATIVE PERSPECTIVE OF LEGAL SYSTEM OF ISRAEL AND POLAND

Jan Olszanowski

THE CIVIL SERVICE AT ROMANIA’S CENTENNIAL

Irina ALEXE

100 YEARS OF CONSTITUTIONALITY CONTROL

Daniela Cristina VALEA

FOREST LEGISLATION’S ROLE IN THE PROTECTION OF ROMANIAN FORESTS

Dogaru Lucreţia

THE EVOLUTION OF THE SOCIAL SECURITY SYSTEM IN ROMANIA

Brînduşa MARIAN

CONSTITUTIONAL EVOLUTION OF ROMANIA

Ioana Cristina VIda

COMMON LAW SUPREME COURTS. A COMPARATIVE APPROACH

Ovidiu-Horia MAICAN

ALTERNATIVE DISPUTE RESOLUTIONS WITHIN ADMINISTRATIVE CONTRACTS: ATTRIBUTES AND ENFORCEMENTS

Mihaela V. CARAUSAN

THE ROMANIAN CRIMINAL LAW FROM THE GREAT UNION TO THE PRESENT DAY

Ion Rusu

THE ROLE OF SOCIAL REACTION REFLECTED IN THE DINAMICS OF THE CRIMINAL CODES - PAST, PRESENT, FUTURE -

Crina – Bianca Vereş

UNIFICATION OF CRIMINAL LAW AFTER THE GREAT UNION – THE 1936 CRIMINAL CODE

Iuliu Crăcană

A HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE ON THE CRIMINALIZATION OF OMISSION IN CRIMINAL LAW

Carmen Adriana Domocoş

TO VACCINATE OR NOT TO VACCINATE. BETWEEN MORAL AND CRIMINAL BOUNDARIES

Laura Stanila

ANALYSIS OF OFFENCES CONCERNING DRUG TRAFFICKING IN ROMANIAN LEGISLATION Adrian

Adrian Cristian MOISE

 

International Law

HINDSIGHT VIEW ON ARBITRATION FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF THE VISIONS, INSTITUTIONS AND THE PERSONALITIES WHICH HAVE ADDED AND CONTRIBUTED TO THE EVOLUTION OF THIS FIELD IN THE LAST CENTURY FROM A TO Z

Alina Mioara Cobuz –Bagnaru

A CENTURY OF ROMANIAN ARBITRATION: HISTORICAL MILESTONES, FROM TRADITION TO MODERNITY

Cristina Ioana FLORESCU

CONSIDERATIONS UPON INTERNATIONAL TREATIES WHICH SHAPED THE HISTORY OF MODERN ROMANIA (1918 – 2018)

LEGAL PERSPECTIVES ON THE UNIFICATION OF THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA WITH ROMANIA. WILL THE HISTORY REPEAT ITSELF?

Dumitru Cazac

LEX MERCATORIA, SOFT LAW AND A CLOSER APROACH OF UNIDROIT PRINCIPLES

Loredana Ioana BUCUR

 

Legal theory

CIVIL LIABILITY - ETERNAL AND FASCINATING LADY OF CIVIL LAW

Maria Dumitru

CONSIDERATIONS ON THE LIQUIDATION AMONG THE HEIRS OF THE FUNERAL EXPENSES

Silviu-Dorin ŞCHIOPU

SOLVING WORK CONFLICTS. PAST AND FUTURE

Roba Roxana Maria